One American’s Suggestions about Greek-American Relations (1967-1974) As Found in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

George Anastaplo

On 24 April 1961 the Supreme Court of the United States, by a vote of five to four, affirmed the action of the Illinois Supreme Court, which by a vote of four to three, had upheld the decision of the Committee on Character and Fitness of the Illinois bar which, by a vote of eleven to six, had decided that George Anastaplo was unfit for admission to the Illinois bar. This was not Anastaplo’s only such experience with power structures. In 1960 he was expelled from Saviet Russia for protesting harassment of another American.and in 1970 from the Greece of the Colonels. AS W. C. Fields might have said, any man who is kicked out of Russia, Greece and the Illinois bar can’t be all bad.

–C. Herman Pritchett,
60 California Law Review 1476 (1972)

PART A

I recently had occasion to review materials I prepared between 19-67 and 1974 for public distribution with respect to contemporary Greek affairs, particularly becaus of the response of the United States Government to the armed takeover of their government by a conspiracy of Greek Army colonels in the Spring of 1967. That remarkable exercise in incompetency ended with the Cyprus debacle (in the Summer of 1974), the consequences of which continue to disturb Greek-Turkish and NATO relations to this day. An overriding concern for me was the role of the United States Government in these developments, a role unfortunately encourged by the more influential members of the Greek-American community.

My experience in Greece (the country from which my parents had emigrated well before my birth in St. Louis in 1925) had included visits to that country in 1946-1947 (while stationed as a flying officer in Egypt), in 1960, and for several years up to 1967 and even thereafter (during which I organized, for American students, annual archaeological tours of Greece). I considered it my duty to share with my fellow Americans what I happened to learn (in Greece and elsewhere) about Greek affairs once the Colonels took over their country with the seeming approval of the Government of the United States.

On two dozen occasions things of mine about Greek affairs were (beginning in 1969) entered by ten different Members of Congress in the Congressional Record  (sometimes using materials previously entered by others). Various other things of mine (of a similar tenor) about Greek affairs were also prepared and otherwise distributed by me. (An extensive listing of my materials, on all subjects, may be found in John A. Murley’s invaluable bibliography, Leo Strauss and His Legacy  [Lexington Books, 2005], pp. 733-855. Also available here.) Among my publications is an article on Modern Greece in the Encyclopedia Britannica.

I have, upon reviewing these materials for this collection, been struck both by how much I once knew about Greek affairs and by how little .1 know now. Some of the material I prepared in response to the Colonels’ regime should be useful for scholars who want to assess what happened during the time of the Colonels. Among the Greeks I personally dealt with on more than one occasion were King Constantine II (in Rome), Constantine Karamanlis (in Paris), and George Seferis (in Athens), as well as with several of “the Colonels.” (I am routinely reminded of what I personally do not know about apparently important matters when I attend[as I have done for decades] the weekly Physics Colloquium at the University of Chicago. It is there that I can hear such observations as this, during a May 2013 lecture on the Higgs Boson, “The Standard Model explains a lot of things except all the stuff in the observable universe.”)

My “farewell” to Greece is noticed in a series of reminiscences collected by me in “A Study in Naivité–A Confession of Sorts” (anastaplo. wordpress), remarks made, April 14, 2012, at a celebration following upon a panel discussion of my work at the annual Midwest Political Science Association convention at the Palmer House in Chicago, Illinois:

And there was my involvement in Greek affairs after the Colonels’ coup in April 1967. I believe I was the only American ever to be declared persona non grata by the Colonels (something that was done twice), in large part because of articles of mine critical of them that I wrote which were put in the Congressional Record  . . . I was particularly concerned about what both our State Department and influential Greek-Americans were doing to keep a band of dangerously incompetent Colonels in power. I, in conver­sations in Rome with King Constantine II, presumed to advise him that he should return to Greece (after his failed counter-coup of December 1967). “But they would arrest me,” he replied. That would be even better, I presumed to say, but to no effect–and that, I still believe, cost him his throne. He has lived ever since in exile, in England (where he is a friend of Prince Philip). I campaigned thereafter for the restoration to power in Athens of Constantine Karamanlis, living in self-imposed exile in Paris. I even had a visit with the Greek Desk people in our State Department (evidently arranged by someone in the C.I.A. who agreed with my assessments)–but I got nowhere. Then there was the Colonels’ desperate effort to redeem themselves by taking over Cyprus–and this led to the disturbing Turkish occupation of part of that island (to this day) and to the fall of the Colonels in July 1974 (upon which Mr. Karamanlis did return to power in Greece). But that time, however, I was “booked” for the summer, unable to return to Greece until the Spring of 1975. But during those six months I heard nothing from anyone in Greece–and I recognized that the Greeks would be able to carry on without me, and so I stayed home. The only Greek I have heard from since 1974 is King Constantine, who sends us (from London) every year a very nice Christmas card featuring a, photograph of his ever-growing family.

See Esther 6: 1-11.

I wonder, of course, how much the underlying causes of the troubles of the 1960s and 1970s continue to create serious problems in a much-troubled Greece. But I can do little more than speculate here, especially since I have not been in Greece for almost a half-century now. I once hoped that Greek participation in European Union affairs would provide a salutary discipline for the quite volatile Greeks. It remains to be seen what the long-term effects of such a Continent-wide association will be.

The two dozen Greece-related postings collected here are set forth in chronological order with the relevant data with respect to their submission. Before this series of Greece-related submissions ended, things of mine on other subjects, some of which could illuminate what the United States was and was not doing in Greece had also begun to be entered in the Congressional Record. (Eventually these should be collected for another posting on this site. They include things by me on Vietnam, Quebec Separatism, the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, and Presidential Impeachment.)

The Members of Congress who placed things of mine in the Congressional Record may have been encouraged to do so, at least in part, by the tacit endorsement of me provided by two much-respected Members of Congress who had been University of Chicago Law School classmates (Class of 1951): Abner J. Mikva and Patsy T. Mink, both of whom submitted things of mine to the Record on various subjects.

I do not attempt to correct typographical and other errors in the texts collected here. Nor do I attempt to reconcile the citation sequences used by the Congressional Record at the various stages of the promulgation of the materials entered. I continue to find it remarkable that I was privileged to share with my fellow citizens what I had learned about Greek affairs, and especially about how the United States conducted itself, during an unnecessarily troubled and troubling decade.

Hyde Park
Chicago, Illinois
Memorial Day, 2013

PART B

ROSTER OF GREECE-RELATED ITEMS, BY GEORGE ANASTAPLO, ENTERED INTO THE CONGRESSIONAL RECORD  BY MEMBERS OF CONGRESS (1969-1975)

I. Abner J. Mikva of Illinois, “George Anastaplo on Greek-American Relations”

115 Congressional Record 6023_6029 (March 11, 1969)

[1] “Greece Today and the limits of American Power”

II. Abner J. Mikva of Illinois, “The Passion of Greece Today”

115 Congressional Record 8460-8468 (April 2, 1969)

[2] “The Passion of Greece Today”

[3] “Retreat from Politics: Greece, 1967”

Donald M. Fraser of Minnesota, “The Fallacy of ‘Freedom* in Greece”

115 Congressional Record 16878-16879 (June 23, 1969),

[4] “Dissent in Athens”

IV. Patsy T. Mink of Hawaii, “Dr. Anastaplo on Greece”

115 Congressional Record 19732-19736 (July 15, 1969)

[5] “Greece and America; Toward the Precipice Together?”

[6] “An Interview by Theml Vasils Broadcast by WICU-TV, Chicago, Illinois, August 17, 1968”

[7] “An Interview by Themi Vasils Broadcast by WICU-TV. Chicago, Illinois, November 9, 1968”

[8] “An Interview by Themi Vasils Broadcast by WICU-TV, Chicago, Illinois, November 23, 1968”

V. Abner J. Mikva of Illinois, “A Guide to Contemporary Greece” “A Guide to Contemporary Greece”

115 Congressional Record 21018-21020 (July 28, 1969)

[9] “A Guide to Contemporary Greece, Especially for Greek-Americans” [Radio Interview of George Anastaplo by John Anastaplo]

VI. Abner J. Mikva of Illinois, “Greece Today and the Limits of Compromise”

115 Congressional Record 40495-40496 (December 14, 1969)

[10] “Greece Today and the Limits of Compromise”

VII. Ray J. Madden of Indiana, “Next Year in Athens?”

116 Congressional Record 3459-3461 (February 16, 1970)

[11] Radio Interview of George Anastaplo, by John Anastaplo” (Station WJOB, Hammond, Indiana)

VIII. Donald M. Fraser of Minnesota, “The Karamanlis Solution in Greece” ‘

116 Congressional Record 6763-6765 (March 10, 1970)

[12]   “Interview in Athens: On the Karamanlis Statement” [Radio Interview of George Anastaplo by Robert McDonald]

[13]   “Statement (Originally in Greek) by the Former Prime Minister of Greece, Constantine Karamanlis [in Paris, France, September 30, 1969]”

IX. Gary Hart of Colorado, “U. S. Policy in Greece”

116 Congressional Record 16359-16362 (May 20, 1970)

[14] “Swan Song of an Eagle: America in Greece”

X. Ray J. Madden of Indiana, “Prof. George Anastaplo’s Message on the Tyranny of the Present Greek Government”

116 Congressional Record 42624-42625 (December 18, 1970)

[15] “American Aid and Greek Tyranny: A Memorandum”

XI. Abner J. Mikva of Illinois, “George Anastaplo: Military Men and Political Questions—What the American Visitor Can Learn From Greece Today”

117 Congressional  Record 20709-20713 (June 17,1971)

[16] “Military Men and Political Questions: What the American Visitor Can Learn From Greece Today”

XII. Benjamin S. Rosenthal of New York, “America in Greece: Swan Song of an Eagle”

117 Congressional Record 28130-28134 (July 29, 1971)

[17] “Swan Song of an Eagle: America in Greece”

XIII. Donald M. Fraser of Minnesota, “American Policy in Greece: A Declaration of Bankruptcy”

117 Congressional Record 47905 (December 17, 1971)

[18] “American Policy in Greece: A Declaration of Bankruptcy”

XIV. Claiborne Pell of Rhode Island, “American Policy in Greece”

118 Congressional Record 889 (January 24, 1972)

[19] “American Policy in Greece: A Declaration of Bankruptcy”

XV. Don Edwards of California, “A Review of Two Books on the Ruling Regime in Greece”

118 Congressional Record 22585-32586 (September 27, 1972)

[20] “Greece of the Journalists: A Review of Two Books”

XVI. Benjamin S. Rosenthal of New York, “Two Experts Look at Greece”

118 Congressional Record 37043-37045 (October 17, 1972)

[21]   “A New Species—Pentagonal Man” (by Spyridon Granitsas)

[22]   Greece of the Journalists: A Review of Two Books”

XVII. Patsy T. Mink of Hawaii, “Greece of the Journalists: A Review of Two Books”

118 Congressional Record 37407-37409 (October 18 1972)

[23] “Greece of the Journalists: A Review of Two Books”

XVIII. Michael Harrington of Massachusetts, “Words to Heed on Greece”

119 Congressional Record 40302-40303 (December 7, 1973)

[24] “Athens and Watergate: A Moral?”

[25] “The Karamanlis Solution in Greece”

XIX. Ray J. Madden of Indiana, “Tyranny in Greece”

119 Congressional Record 40892-40893 (December 11, 1973)

[26] “Dreadful Days in Athens: Greek Massacres and American Misjudgments” [Radio Interview of George Anastaplo by John Anastaplo]

XX. Ray J. Madden of Indiana, “Freedom for Greece”

119 Congressional Record 42093-42094 (December 17, 1973)

[27] “The Karamanlis Solution for Greece”

XXI. Don Edwards of California, “More on Greece”

120 Congressional Record  14371-14372 (May 13, 1974)

[28]  “Bloodied Greece: No Way Out?”

XXII. Ray J. Madden of Indiana, “Freedom for Greece”

120 Congressional Record 15597 (May 20, 1974)

[29]  “Bloodied Greece: No Way Out?”

XXIII. Ray J. Madden of Indiana, “Greek Independence: Opinions of Prof. George Anastaplo on Cyprus Situation”

120 Congressional Record 26618-26619 (August 2, 1974)

[30] “Cyprus Countdown and the Folly of the Greek Colonels” [Radio Interview of George Anastaplo by John Anastaplo]

XXIV. Ray J. Madden of Indiana, “Politics Versus Ideology: The Greek Case”

121 Congressional Record 10321-10323 (April 15, 1975)

[31] “Politics Versus Ideology: The Greek Case”

XXV. Paul M. Simon of Illinois, “Tragedy of War”

138 Congressional Record 24764 (September 14, 1992)

[32] [Sobering Recollections from Carterville. Illinois During the Second World War]

PART C

To view the materials from the Congressional Record, click here. For citations in the roster, roman numerals refer to excerpted portions from the Record. Within each excerpt there are one or more articles (bracketed numbers in the roster).

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